Communicable diseases spread from one person to another or from an animal to a person. The spread often happens via airborne viruses or bacteria, but also through blood or other bodily fluid. The terms infectious and contagious are also used to describe communicable diseases. Below are some of the common communicable diseases.
Influenza (also known as the flu) is a contagious respiratory illness caused by flu viruses. It can cause mild to severe illness, and at times can lead to death.
Fever/ Chills, Cough, Sore throat, Runny or stuffy nose, Muscle or body aches, Headaches, Fatigue
Most of the experts believe that flu viruses spread mainly by droplets made by people with flu cough, sneeze or talk. These droplets can travel through air and effect the people nearby. It is possible to spread the virus without knowing your sick.
An annual seasonal flu vaccine (either the flu shot or the nasal spray flu vaccine) is the best way to reduce the chances that you will get seasonal flu and spread it to others. When more people get vaccinated against the flu, less flu can spread through that community.
Usually, you’ll need nothing more than bed rest and plenty of fluids to treat the flu. However if the case is serious enough your doctor can prescribe antiviral drugs that can be used to treat the flu.
Tuberculosis (TB) is primarily an airborne disease caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which are spread person-to-person through the air. This bacteria mainly affects the lungs, but may adversely affect other organs.
Chronic or debilitating cough (that lasts 3 weeks or longer), Coughing up bloody sputum (Saliva), Weight loss, Fever, Night sweats, Loss of appetite
TB is primarily spread through air. Bacteria is spread person-to-person in droplets as TB sufferers sneezes, coughs or talks.
Limit contact with active TB patients, promptly detect active cases, seek proper treatment and patient care and maintain adequate ventilation in enclosed spaces.
Many strains of TB are classified as drug resistant and require special medications. Accounting for this, active TB patients often have to take a series of medications for numerous months to eradicate the infection and prevent reinfection. And also Completion of entire treatment cycle is vital to eradicate and prevent reinfection.
Chikungunya virus is spread to people through mosquito bites and is not transmitted by direct person-to-person contact. Newborns, older adults, and people with medical conditions such as high blood pressure, diabetes, or heart disease are at an increased risk of a severe illness.
Due to the similarity of symptoms and the possibility of coinfection, dengue should be considered as a differential diagnosis for anyone with suspected chikungunya infection.
Most people infected with the virus will become symptomatic. The disease is most often characterized by acute onset of fever (typically 102°F or higher) and joint pain. Other symptoms may include headache, muscle pain, joint swelling, or rash. While the symptoms can be severe and disabling, death is rare.
Keep skin covered with long sleeve shirts or pants, Use insect repellents, Use mosquito netting if in an area that’s open to the outdoors, and use mosquito netting if in an area that’s open to the outdoors.
There is no vaccine to prevent or medicine to treat chikungunya virus infection. Otherwise, alleviate symptoms by getting plenty of rest, drinking fluids to prevent dehydration, and taking medicines, such as ibuprofen, naproxen, acetaminophen, or paracetamol, to relieve fever and pain. Consult a physician if you develop the symptoms described above.
Coronavirus-COVID-19 outbreak that began in China, causes mild to severe respiratory illness including death. COVID-19 has since spread worldwide. The best preventive measures include wearing a mask, staying six feet apart, washing hands often, avoiding sick people and keeping your hands away from your face.
The number of people infected changes daily. More than 111,000,000 people in the world have been infected. Over 2,400,000 people have died. Some 192 countries and territories on all continents (except Antarctica) have now reported cases of COVID-19.
The U.S. has the highest number of cases, with more than 28,000,000 people infected and nearly 500,000 deaths. India has more than 11,000,000 cases and 156,000 deaths.
This virus travels in respiratory droplets when an infected person coughs, sneezes, talks, sings or breathes near you (within six feet). This is thought to be the main way COVID-19 is spread.
Researchers are still learning about COVID-19. What IS known is that people infected with COVID-19 can spread the virus to others before experiencing symptoms themselves (while people are still asymptomatic.
Fever or chills, Cough, difficulty in breathing, Sore throat, Loss of taste or smell, Nausea and vomiting and Diarrhea.
Social distancing or stay six feet away from others whenever possible, Wear a cloth mask that covers your mouth and nose when around others, Wash your hands often. If soap is not available, use a hand sanitizer that contains at least 60% alcohol, Avoid crowded indoor spaces, Stay self-isolated at home if you are feeling ill with symptoms that could be COVID-19 and have a positive test for COVID-19.
Also symptoms may appear between two and 14 days after exposure to the virus. Children have similar, but usually milder, symptoms than adults. Older adults and people who have severe underlying medical conditions like heart or lung disease or diabetes are at higher risk of more serious complication from COVID-19.
do not indulge in self-medication with any medicines like antibiotics, as a prevention or cure for COVID-19.
COVID-19 is diagnosed with a laboratory test. Your healthcare provider may collect a sample of your saliva or swab your nose or throat to send for testing.
Among those who develop symptoms, most (about 80%) recover from the disease without needing hospital treatment. About 15% become seriously ill and require oxygen and 5% become critically ill and need intensive care.
Scientists around the world are working to find and develop treatments for COVID-19 and currently there are twelve COVID-19 vaccines for which certain national regulatory authorities have authorized the use.
The Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine is being manufactured locally by our own Serum Institute of India, the world’s largest vaccine manufacturer. International clinical trials of the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine showed that when people were given a half dose and then a full dose, effectiveness hit 90%.
However, unpublished data suggests that leaving a longer gap between the first and second doses increases the overall effectiveness of the jab – in a sub-group given the vaccine this way it was found to be 70% effective after the first dose.